Intriguing. I'll try to answer what I can:
1. I see the "apple" and Eden story as a metaphor for temptation, and a mythic tale on the origins of life.
2. Nothing is wrong w/ the Golden Rule.
3. Good question and I don't know.
4. Acc. to Webster, religion is "any system of faith and worship" and "belief in supernatural entity that governs the universe."
Science is defined as "systematic knowledge of knowledge and phenomena."
By definition, they are not the same, but similarities could be said to exist in that both seek to understand the universe.
5. What would change if God were proven? Perhaps universal peace or universal wars over who is "right." A good film asks this question titled "The Second Coming" produced by the BBC. The answer was unexpected and interesting.
6. The analogy "no one is perfect" seems to fit as a response. By definition, perfection cannot have flaws. However, we humans are far from perfect. Depends on your interpretation: scientific or religious perfection.
One could be a perfect human as defined by scientific terms, but some moral absolutes in certain belief systems require unachievable perfection (imo).
7. Good point and possibly.
8. Taoism states "God created in order to understand Itself." I agree w/ this view or at least it intrigues me.
9. Not necessarily. Prayer brings humility and realize we humans cannot do everything. The Odyssey by Homer asks this question and gives a similar answer "Man is nothing without the gods."
10. To me, atheism represents a different way to venerate the Divine by means of the study of science. Lack of a belief in a deity is nonetheless a belief.
11. End hatred, possibly. I really don't know.
12. Will peace ever happen on Earth?
* As a side note to #12, on the X Files, a genie granted Mulder three wishes. He wished for peace on Earth and all humans vanished. Ironically, his third wish was to undo his wishes...
"First, they laugh at you. Then they fight you. Then you win."-- Mahatma Gandhi
Peace & Blessings,