that it is not necessarily masculinity that cause homophobic acts in society. I think it is one's insecure feelings about their own masculinity that leads to violence and hatred of gay males. However, there is still more dynamics here than what one can really explain away using concrete terms. All though it is rare and not heard of as often, there are females who are also homophobic in their belief system where physical violence is manifested. Homophobic hate is not limited to the physical aspect of violence but also the mental aspect, and as we all know, the spiritual aspect as well.